We can ask a few questions regarding sacrifice exchanges. Can a minor effect an exchange? If he is younger than twelve, there is not doubt that he cannot, because he cannot vow. But between twelve and thirteen his vows take effect. On the other hand, a minor is not punished, and since he cannot receive lashes, possibly he cannot effect exchange? We leave it unresolved.
Can an idolater effect exchange? Since he can bring sacrifices like an Israelite, perhaps he can. However, since he is never punished with lashes (unlike a minor who will reach the age of punishment), perhaps he cannot? Really, the answer here is clear that he cannot, because the Torah described the exchange only for “sons of Israel.” Rather, the questions is what happens when he promises a sacrifice on behalf of Jew. Is the one who consecrates the sacrifices or the one for whom it is consecrated more important? This is also left unresolved.
Why is one punished for exchange with lashes, if it is just words, and the usual rule is that one is only punished for an act (with some exceptions, such as cursing another with the name of God or makes a false oath)? However, the answer is that with his words he achieves an action, and therefore is punished as for an action.
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Eruvin 64 – Nice law
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